Haiqing Xu, Yu Gao, Hongqi Zhang, Takashi Sakurai, Masaoki Hagino, D. Sokoloff, A.Pevtsov, Magnetic helicity of solar active regions as revealed by vector magnetograms and coronal X-ray images, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, 64, 54, 12 pages, 2012.
We have used photospheric vector magnetograms of 15 different solar active regions to calculate the current helicity parameter, ?av, and the linear force-free field (LFFF) parameter, ?best, that fits best the observed transverse field. The data were obtained with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope at the Huairou Solar Observing Station, the National Astronomical Observatories of China, the Solar Flare Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the Haleakala Stokes Polarimeter at the Mees Solar Observatory, University of Hawaii, from 1997 to 2000. The agreement in sign of ?av between three vector magnetographs is better than 90%. For ?best, the agreement is 80%-90%. The line-of-sight magnetograms observed with the Michelson-Doppler Imager (MDI) on SOHO and coronal X-ray images observed with the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh have been used to determine the constant ?c of the LFFF in the corona. The value of ?c corresponds to the extrapolated coronal field whose field lines best match, by visual inspection, the structure of coronal loops in X-ray images. It is found that the sign agreement between photospheric ?av or ?best and coronal ?c is lower (60%-85%). We consider the differences in measurements, observing conditions, data reduction methods, and limitation in LFFF extrapolation, and discuss their contributions to the dispersions in the hemispheric sign rule of helicity.
Sun: corona — Sun: magnetic fields — Sun: sunspots